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The source of infection may be suggested by the instrumentation, as follows: Sinusitis, tracheitis, pneumonia Intravascular catheter: Phlebitis, line infection Foley catheter: UTI Patients with pneumonia may have the following: Fever, cough, purulent sputum Abnormal chest auscultatory findings eg, decreased breath sounds, crackles, wheezes Patients with UTI may have the following: Fever or normal temperature Tenderness, suprapubic cystitis or costovertebral pyelonephritis Cloudy, foul-smelling urine See Clinical Presentation for more detail.
Diagnosis Because not all bacterial or fungal growth on a culture is pathogenic and because such growth may reflect simple microbial colonization, interpretation of cultures should take into account the following: Clinical presentation of the patient Reason for obtaining the test Process by which the specimen was obtained Presence or absence of other supporting evidence of infection Methods used to diagnose and characterize BSIs include the following: Differential time to positivity of paired blood cultures simplest [ 8 ] Thesis about nosocomial infection quantitative culture of blood obtained from the catheter and peripheral vein; quantitative culture of catheter segment Suspected fungal infection: Imaging studies such as echocardiography Immunocompromised patients: Occasional special studies eg, cultures for Nocardia, atypical mycobacteria, cytomegalovirus [CMV], and CMV antigenemia Tests used to identify pneumonia include the following: Acute-phase reactants Oxygen saturation and hemodynamic studies Chest radiography Sputum Gram stain and culture if necessary, samples can also be obtained through bronchoalveolar lavage or thoracocentesis Rapid diagnostic tests eg multiplex PCR capable of identifying multiple pathogens in a specimen Urinalysis and urine culture, along with clinical findings, are essential for differentiating between asymptomatic bacteriuria, cystitis, and pyelonephritis.
The following factors should be kept in mind in the interpretation of urine cultures: Number of colonies and species isolated Method of sample collection Time from collection to laboratory processing Sex of the patient Most experts recommend imaging studies in evaluating children with first-time UTI.
See Workup for more detail. Management of BSI may include the following: Line removal as appropriate [ 8 ] Antibiotic therapy covering gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, started empirically and then tailored according to specific susceptibility patterns Antifungal therapy as appropriate Prevention through use of catheter disinfection caps Management of pneumonia includes the following: Initial empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, later streamlined on the basis of identified organisms and susceptibilities, with attention to the risk of multidrug-resistant MDR pathogens Antiviral medications against influenza for symptomatic patients and patients with immunodeficiency or chronic lung diseases to limit morbidity and mortality Management of UTI includes the following: Removal of indwelling catheters if possible Empiric antibiotic and antifungal therapy Management of SSI includes the following: Surgical debridement See Treatment and Medication for more detail.
Background Healthcare-associated infections HAI are defined as infections not present and without evidence of incubation at the time of admission to a healthcare setting.
As a better reflection of the diverse healthcare settings currently available to patients, the term healthcare-associated infections replaced old ones such as nosocomial, hospital-acquired or hospital-onset infections.
Most infections that become clinically evident after 48 hours of hospitalization are considered hospital-acquired. Infections that occur after the patient is discharged from the hospital can be considered healthcare-associated if the organisms were acquired during the hospital stay.
Hospital-based programs of surveillance, prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections have been in place since the s. Healthcare-associated infections are of important wide-ranging concern in the medical field. They can be localized or systemic, can involve any system of the body, be associated with medical devices or blood product transfusions.
This article focuses on the 3 major sites of healthcare-associated infections ie, bloodstream infection, pneumoniaand urinary tract infection with focus on the pediatric population. Previous Pathophysiology Infectious agents causing healthcare-associated infections may come from endogenous or exogenous sources.
Endogenous sources include body sites normally inhabited by microorganisms. Examples include the nasopharynx, GI, or genitourinary tracts. Exogenous sources include those that are not part of the patient.
Examples include visitors, medical personnel, equipment and the healthcare environment. Inthe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC released a pair of reports on healthcare-associated infections, with one indicating that significant progress has been made in their prevention.Nosocomial Infections Project instructions: complete a literature search, and identify at least three research studies (nursing research preferred) about NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS.
Research articles must be published within the last 5 years. Write a 4-page (max) paper using APA format containing a two-paragraph summary of each article, and a final summary of the evidence on the .
Nosocomial infection, also known as hospital-based infection or health care-associated infection, is a serious global public health issue, causing the suffering of million people across the world at any given time (WHO, ).
Nosocomial infections point to certain risk factors. This factors will pre-dispose a patient to infection. Treatments such as immunosuppresion and ant acid which form part of the patient’s treatment tend to undermine the body’s defence. Nosocomial infection is a disease which affects 1 in 10 patients within 48 hours, 3 days of discharge or 30 days of operation.
In this modern era of antibiotics, it continues to remain as . Thesis - Prevention of Nosocomial Infections as Percieved by Staff Nurses - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Scribd is /5(7). A nosocomial infection is contracted because of an infection or toxin that exists in a certain location, such as a hospital.
People now use nosocomial infections interchangeably with the terms.