Attachment and daycare infographic What is Attachment theory?
Telephonefaxe-mail ac. All rights reserved This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Adolescence is characterized by significant neurological, cognitive and sociopsychological development.
With the advance of adolescence, the amount of time spent with parents typically drops while time spent with peers increases considerably. Adolescent-parent attachment has profound effects on cognitive, social and emotional functioning.
Secure attachment is associated with less engagement in high risk behaviours, fewer mental health problems, and enhanced social skills and coping strategies.
The present article provides a brief synopsis of the changes that occur during adolescence and describes what attachment is, why it continues to be important and how it is transformed during adolescence. It summarizes major findings on the impact of attachment on adolescent adjustment and discusses strategies for supporting healthy adolescent-parent attachment.
It is a period of biological, cognitive and social change of such magnitude and rapidity that it is no surprise to find that it is associated with the onset or exacerbation of a number of health-related problems including depression 1eating disorders 2substance abuse and dependence 3 — 5risky sexual behaviour 6antisocial and delinquent activity 7 and school dropout 8.
In recent years, the role of parental influence in adolescent adjustment has been seriously questioned. Some researchers have argued that parents make little or no difference in how their children navigate the adolescent period, pointing instead to data showing that peer influence dominates this period 9.
Contrary to this position, there is growing evidence that parents do make a difference, and that this difference operates through the nature of their attachment bond with their child 10 — Although this has long been recognized by social scientists and mental health professionals eg, psychiatrists, psychologists and other adolescent health specialiststhe true depth of the changes that occur during this period have yet to be fully understood.
New research points to significant transformations in neurological structure and function. Dopamine production and functional levels of other neuro-transmitters change throughout adolescence, reaching adult stabilization levels at approximately 16 years of age Significant transformations occur in prefrontal cortex function, supporting increasing capacity for abstract thinking and problem solving 14 and strategic response inhibition Rapid hormonal changes also characterize this developmental period Contrary to popular opinion, hormonal changes do not directly account for behavioural changes during adolescence.
However, changes in neurological structure and neurotransmitter function have been implicated in increased irritability, anhedonia and risk taking behaviour which have been documented to increase during adolescence Changes in neurological development are accompanied by significant cognitive development; in particular, the capacity for abstract thought and complex problem solving.
Metacognitive and representational capacity grows from early to late adolescence 17 — Adolescents are increasingly able to simultaneously represent and compare multiple perspectives and attributes, promoting a more differentiated view of the world, including how adolescents see themselves and others around them 20 — Early in adolescence, however, the ability to differentiate outstrips the capacity to integrate diverse information, leading adolescents to view the world in black and white terms, and to feel at odds with seemingly contradictory aspects of themselves.
It is not until late adolescence that conflicting aspects of the self can be integrated into a coherent sense of self 24 Alongside these rapid biological changes, adolescents enter a new social-psychological phase of life. It is normal for the amount of time spent with parents to drop precipitously while time spent with peers increases.
New social roles open up for adolescents, taking them further from their families. Dating relationships begin in early adolescence — around 13 years of age for girls and 14 years of age for boys 34 — although it is not until late adolescence that these relationships are characterized by genuine intimacy and deep emotional involvement In summary, adolescence involves significant transformations in almost every domain of functioning.
However, in the adolescent phase of development, the parent-child relationship is thrown into flux as children strive toward autonomy and parents struggle to find new ways of supporting their children in the context of a different relationship.Attachment styles are characterized by different ways of interacting and behaving in relationships.
During early childhood, these attachment styles are centered on how children and parents interact. In adulthood, attachment styles are used to describe patterns of attachment in romantic relationships. Attachment styles have been studied largely in the field of developmental psychology, but scarcely in the field of industrial/organizational psychology.
The theory behind attachment styles states that each individual has a particular style of attachment which is a result . Attachment styles are characterized by different ways of interacting and behaving in relationships.
During early childhood, these attachment styles are centered on how children and parents interact. In adulthood, attachment styles are used to describe patterns of attachment in romantic relationships.
Changes in attachment styles therefore indicate changes in working models. Around 70–80% of people experience no significant changes in attachment styles over time.
The fact that attachment styles do not change for a majority of people indicates working models are relatively stable. Yet, around 20–30% of people do experience changes in attachment styles.
Mar 31, · The role of attachment in infancy on later mental and physical health outcomes. Attachment and resilience Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationships - Duration. Attachment theory plays an important role in Adult relationship; What is your attachment style?
Attachment and daycare (infographic) and more mature than children with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles.
2. Ambivalent Attachment. These children are very suspicious of strangers.