The traditional view that the plague had a terrible effect on the economy has been greatly changed.
Black Death migration The plague disease, caused by Yersinia pestisis enzootic commonly present in populations of fleas carried by ground rodentsincluding marmotsin various areas including Central AsiaKurdistanWestern AsiaNorth India and Uganda.
In the s, a large number of natural disasters and plagues led to widespread famine, starting inwith a deadly plague arriving soon after. After a protracted siege, during which the Mongol army under Jani Beg was suffering from the disease, the army catapulted infected corpses over the city walls of Kaffa to infect the inhabitants.
The Genoese traders fled, taking the plague by ship into Sicily and the south of Europe, whence it spread north. European outbreak The seventh year after it began, it came to England and first began in the towns and ports joining on the seacoasts, in Dorsetshire, where, as in other counties, it made the country quite void of inhabitants so that there were almost none left alive.
But at length it came to Gloucester, yea even to Oxford and to London, and finally it spread over all England and so wasted the people that scarce the tenth person of any sort was left alive.
The plague reached Sicily in Octobercarried by twelve Genoese galleys,  and rapidly spread all over the island. Galleys from Kaffa reached Genoa and Venice in Januarybut it was the outbreak in Pisa a few weeks later that was the entry point to northern Italy.
Towards the end of January, one of the galleys expelled from Italy arrived in Marseille. The plague was somewhat less common in parts of Europe that had smaller trade relations with their neighbours, including the majority of the Basque Countryisolated parts of Belgium and the Netherlands, and isolated alpine villages throughout The features of the black death and its importance continent.
The disease repeatedly wiped out the rodent carriers so that the fleas died out until a new outbreak from Central Asia repeated the process. The outbreaks have been shown to occur roughly 15 years after a warmer and wetter period in areas where plague is endemic in other species such as gerbils.
As infected rodents infected new rodents, the disease spread across the region, entering also from southern Russia. Duringthe disease travelled eastward to Gazaand north along the eastern coast to cities in LebanonSyria and Palestineincluding AshkelonAcreJerusalemSidonDamascusHomsand Aleppo.
In —, the disease reached Antioch. During the same year, records show the city of Mawsil Mosul suffered a massive epidemic, and the city of Baghdad experienced a second round of the disease.
Signs and symptoms A hand showing how acral gangrene of the fingers due to bubonic plague causes the skin and flesh to die and turn black An inguinal bubo on the upper thigh of a person infected with bubonic plague.
Swollen lymph glands buboes often occur in the neck, armpit and groin inguinal regions of plague victims. Contemporary accounts of the plague are often varied or imprecise. The most commonly noted symptom was the appearance of buboes or gavocciolos in the groin, the neck and armpits, which oozed pus and bled when opened.
In men and women alike it first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain tumours in the groin or armpits, some of which grew as large as a common apple, others as an egg From the two said parts of the body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to propagate and spread itself in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute and numerous.
As the gavocciolo had been and still was an infallible token of approaching death, such also were these spots on whomsoever they showed themselves. Most victims died two to seven days after initial infection. Freckle-like spots and rashes,  which could have been caused by flea-bites, were identified as another potential sign of the plague.
Some accounts, like that of Lodewijk Heyligenwhose master the Cardinal Colonna died of the plague innoted a distinct form of the disease that infected the lungs and led to respiratory problems  and is identified with pneumonic plague. It is said that the plague takes three forms.
In the first people suffer an infection of the lungs, which leads to breathing difficulties. Whoever has this corruption or contamination to any extent cannot escape but will die within two days.
This species of flea is the primary vector for the transmission of Yersinia pestisthe organism responsible for bubonic plague in most plague epidemics.
Both male and female fleas feed on blood and can transmit the infection. Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut.
The foregut proventriculus of this flea is blocked by a Y. Yersinia pestis x magnificationthe bacterium which causes bubonic plague  Medical knowledge had stagnated during the Middle Ages.
The most authoritative account at the time came from the medical faculty in Paris in a report to the king of France that blamed the heavens, in the form of a conjunction of three planets in that caused a "great pestilence in the air". That the plague was caused by bad air became the most widely accepted theory.
Today, this is known as the miasma theory. The word plague had no special significance at this time, and only the recurrence of outbreaks during the Middle Ages gave it the name that has become the medical term.The Black Death – as it is commonly called – especially ravaged Europe, which was halfway through a century already marked by war, famine and scandal in the church, which had moved its.
The Black Death was one of the most feared diseases in the 14th century. It was a type of plague that was spread via the bite of infected rat fleas. The name Black Death came from the swollen buboes (glands) in the victim’s neck, armpits, and inner thigh that turned black as they filled with blood.
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! - The Black Death It is impossible to discuss Europe’s history without mentioning the Plague of , also known as the Black Death.
The Black Death reached Italian shores in the spring of The presence of such a plague was enormously devastating making its mark in unprecedented numbers in recorded history.
The Black Death had several consequences including cultural, religious and economic influences. These changes were both positive and negative and contributed to conditions favorable to the decline of feudalism, the end of the Middle Ages and the emergence of the Renaissance.
The so-called Black Death, or pandemic of the Middle Ages, began in China and made its way to Europe, causing the death of 60% of the entire population.
The third, or modern, pandemic started in China in the 19th century and spread to port cities all over the world.