Racial discrimination was not illegal in s America, therefore racism was still rampant at the time. Whites and blacks were segregated in s America and blacks were considered as 2nd class citizens. Black people were paid less than their white counterparts and they had to work harder than everyone else, often given the more 'dirty work'.
All articles in this series But the well-entrenched bureaucrats of the AFL had long used racism to keep strict control over their membership, and could not countenance the threat of a racially united rank and file.
Lewis, formed the Committee for Industrial Organization CIOwith the aim of unionizing auto, steel and other industries. William Mitch of the United Mineworkers had spectacular success transforming the Alabama UMW from an organization of two locals with members in Juneto a union of 23, by60 percent of whom were Black.
This is a union that only a few years earlier had virtually excluded Black workers. Another Racism in 1930s for CIO success in organizing Blacks was the support of the National Negro Congress, a Communist Party-initiated organization that brought the CIO together with civil rights organizations previously hostile to organized labor.
The Congress played a crucial role in counteracting the influence of the antiunion, Black middle class preachers, who received financial support from corporations such as Ford, Chrysler and U.
But after years of experiencing racism at the hands of the AFL, Blacks were slow to join the new unions. Since Blacks were a relatively small proportion of the workforce at Chrysler and 10 percent of the workforce at Briggs, the strike could be relatively successful even without their total support.
The Black Department foundered during UAW factionalism in the s, but it laid the basis for the tremendous strike victory inwhen the vast majority of 17, Black workers enthusiastically supported a strike against the company.
Often, they were convinced by the courageous, militant anti-racism of many CIO organizers, especially socialists and communists who faced the Ku Klux Klan, company thugs and police violence in their efforts to organize Blacks.
Before the rise of the CIO, there wereBlacks in unions. Byhalf a million were organized. But even these tremendous steps forward could not overcome the effects of unemployment during the Great Depression. The proportion of Blacks in manufacturing actually declined from 7.
And Jim Crow persisted. At a strike at Atlanta Southern Bed Company, a union local agreed to a Jim Crow picket line--whites on one side of the plant, Blacks on the other.
Even in the North, Jim Crow company policies persisted.
Blacks were rarely upgraded to skilled jobs in the auto or steel industries. A promised all-out CIO organizing drive in the South was permanently delayed, a casualty of the increasingly conservative union leadership that used enforcement of the no-strike pledge during the Second World War as an excuse to put off organizing drives.
Far from being a left-wing, working class alternative, the Communist Party popular front support for Roosevelt led it to become the strongest enforcer of the no-strike pledge and to ignore Black struggles against Jim Crow practices in the defense industries.
At its best, though, the CIO showed how racist ideas promoted by the bosses and their media can be broken down in struggle.
Confronted by union-busting bosses, workers come to see that racism allows the bosses to divide and rule. Through struggle, Black and white workers can learn the real source of racism--the bosses and their system--and struggle to overcome it. First published in the January issue of Socialist Worker.Issues of Race in the 's.
The 's were a turbulent time for race relations in America. Despite the decline of such organizations as the Ku Klux Klan (which had enjoyed renewed support during the 's and 's) racism was as strong as ever in the Southern states.
Racism during the s remained a very real threat to the safety and opportunities of African-Americans in the United States. Decades of repressive policies in the country (particularly the Southern states) began to come under pressure by the New Deal programs of President Franklin Roosevelt. Racism in the Deep South- s, Two men hold signs up, asking for employment., In many public places, black and white people had to go to different places., Often compared to indentured servitude, lynch- (of a group of people) kill (someone) for an alleged offence without a legal trial, especially by hanging., Shows a group of KKK members., Taken from the film 'To Kill A Mockingbird', originally .
s life for black people was difficult due to racism. Racial discrimination was not illegal in s America, therefore racism was still rampant at the time. Whites and blacks were segregated in s America and blacks were considered as 2nd class citizens.
THE GREAT Depression of the s was catastrophic for all workers. But as usual, Blacks suffered worse, pushed out of unskilled jobs . Racism in the United States has been widespread since the colonial era. Legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights were given to white Americans but denied to all other races.
was continuous throughout the early s, and Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.