The current account surplus is projected to stabilise.
Current issues in agricultural development The country: The second most populous African country after Nigeria, Ethiopia has a population of The main characteristic of the climate is its erratic rainfall patterns.
The southwest highlands receive the highest average rainfall, while precipitation decreases towards the northeast and the east. Even in areas with a high mean annual rainfall, the variations can be extreme.
Disaster management in Ethiopia: Drought was at the root of at least ten famine episodes in the last 40 years which have affected large areas and significant portions of the population. In the last 20 years, the most serious droughts in terms of human suffering were those of and In terms of area under cultivation, cereals teff, maize, barley, wheat are the major crop category, followed by pulses horse beans, chickpeas, haricot beans and oilseeds mainly neug and linseed.
Coffee is the main export accounting for The average farm size is estimated to be between 1 and 1. The overall growth of GDP during the s and s 1.
Economic policies affecting agriculture The search for proximate causes of both agricultural and general economic stagnation in Ethiopia since the mids leads to a set of interrelated structural constraints and policy factors. In addition to the harsh agroclimatic conditions, inadequate and poorly maintained infrastructure, environmental degradation and inadequate technology have contributed to the decline of agriculture.
At the policy level, macroeconomic and sector-specific policies have contributed to the creation of a negative environment for agricultural growth.
The rise to power of the revolutionary government in marked the beginning of an era of tight direct government controls on the production and distribution systems. A brief description of the policies implemented as well as their effects help explain the nature and magnitude of the problems facing Ethiopia today.
In Ethiopia, macroeconomic policies have traditionally been characterized by prudent fiscal management. The fiscal deficit was kept at an average of 7 percent of GDP for most years between andwith the exception of drought years.
An aggressive policy of fiscal receipts prevented the deficits from ballooning. The budgetary effects of external shocks were mitigated by foreign disaster-relief flows.
In general, foreign flows of grants and loans left about half the deficit to be financed internally. As the government avoided recourse to inflationary financing, average inflation was kept close to 9 percent during the 17 years ending in While a macroeconomic balance and price stability are necessary for growth, Ethiopia is an example of how these two factors may not be sufficient.
Public fixed investment expenditure grew by almost 16 percent annually afterwhile recurrent expenditure grew by 5 percent. It was chiefly channelled towards directly productive activities mainly in manufacturing and public utilitieswhich often had questionable efficiency performances.
During the s, 30 percent of real capital outlays were devoted to agriculture including state farms and land settlement and only 15 percent to infrastructure transport and communications. II - statistical annex. An aggressive revenue policy brought total fiscal revenues from 20 to 29 percent of GDP in the s.
Tax collection was divided evenly among domestic indirect taxes, business profit taxes and taxes on foreign trade. Taxes on coffee exports amounted to 30 to 40 percent of the f.
Profits made by the lucrative state enterprises mainly airways, mining and shipping constituted an increasing share of total revenues. Occasionally, emergency levies and surcharges were imposed. Institutional constraints on private business activity, for example a ceiling of 0.
High levels of deposits could be attracted at low interest rates forced savings and they were, in turn, mobilized for financing the domestic deficit. As a result, 85 to 90 percent of domestic financing came from the banking system.For analysis, secondary data was collected from annual reports of Central bank of Sri Lanka, Colombo Stock Exchange, Securities and Exchange Commission and Department of Census and Statistics.
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Sri Lanka: Economy | Asian Development Bank 中文. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is committed to achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable Asia and the Pacific, while sustaining its efforts to eradicate extreme poverty.
The Sri Lankan economy has seen robust annual growth at percent over the course of to Sri Lanka is now focusing on long-term strategic and structural development challenges as it strives to transition to an upper middle income country.