Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were two great civilizations and among the earliest to emerge, starting after B. Both made significant contributions in areas such as mathematics, medicine, agriculture, astronomy, technology, architecture, art and writing. They had differences as well, including their political structures, most notably that the Egyptians operated under a centralized government and the Mesopotamians had separate, self controlled city-state governments. Ancient Egyptian Politics Ancient Egyptians were ruled by a pharaoh for most of their history.
These civilizations appear to have developed in response to their environment and in reaction to their human need for survival and security. The first human civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River Valley, and China but not Mesoamerica all developed around rivers; as such they were called alluvial, or located in the plains surrounding a river.
For Mesopotamia and Egypt, controlling where the water went, using irrigation, was critical to their survival. Irrigation allowed water to be used farther away from the river itself, thereby allowing more people to use the river water. Plus, controlling the flood water was a necessity.
The people of these alluvial or river societies became so dependent on the rivers that they developed much of their culture and society around it. This is not where the agricultural revolution began, however.
Farming began in the Fertile Crescent in about B. The highest concentrations of villages were along the Jordon River Valley in Palestine. The people of Mesopotamia came from the hills north of Mesopotamia where they farmed without irrigation. The population growth in the hills forced people to migrate to the plains where there was insufficient water for farming without irrigation.
The weather was hot and dry in the summer and cold in the winter. The annual floods caused anyone trying to live there to flee to higher ground. Thus, the people who were pushed out of the hilly farm land and forced to figure out a way to make a living out of the desert.
Egypt and Mesopotamia: Similarities and Differences in Religion Words Feb 2nd, 4 Pages Most societies that developed in ancient civilizations were centered around their belief systems. Transcript of Similarities and Differences of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Gov't and Law Codes Similarities of Mesopotamia and Egypt Religion Similarities-Both believed in many gods, or polytheism. -In Mesopotamia, each area was controlled by its own political . The Mesoamerica communities were close to each other geographically, but they still had differences. Different geographical regions allowed people to plant different crops and domesticate different animals. A similarity that all ancient agrarian societies had with each other was that they were all located near major water sources.
They built small canals from the feeder streams of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In order to protect against flooding, they built levees on the river banks so that the water could rise higher before flooding and they dug ditches and canals to channel the water to the fields.
Later in their development of irrigation, they invented water-lifting devices to lift the water from the river. In pioneering water storage, Mesopotamians were the first hydraulic engineers. It was not until the Sumerians started building artificial mounds and built walls around the city did they begin to have any protection from the floods.
One of the first Mesopotamian cities, Uruk, had 5-miles of fortified walls. Before the walled cities citadels existed, people needed to keep fleeing to the hills when the floods arrived.
With the walled cities, the people had a layer of protection from the floods in case the unpredictable flood waters rose above the natural levees. Later, they learned to build dikes to hold back the flood waters closer to the Persian Gulf into which the rivers flowed and they learned to build canals to channel that dammed flood water to farms where it was needed.
The most important possession, the temple zigguratwas built on an artificial mound that offered further security from the sometimes overzealous flooding. In order to have organized manpower, an organizer was necessary. This is where religion played a major role.
Each city-state had its own deity. Thus, it is evident that even the religion was created based on environmental influences. Thus a hierarchy of leaders and religious officials developed. In addition, technology was necessary for this successful canal network. Another step in the development of Mesopotamian civilization was their invention of the wooden plow, which allowed them to till a wider variety of soils more quickly than before the plow.
Then, they discovered bronze, which is a combination of copper and tin, that is stronger than either of the two ingredients separately. The Mesopotamians used this bronze to make their plows even more efficient.
The production of such technology required artisans such as metal workers. The agricultural surplus produced by this complex system paid for the rulers, priests, and artisans.Transcript of Similarities and Differences of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Gov't and Law Codes Similarities of Mesopotamia and Egypt Religion Similarities-Both believed in many gods, or polytheism.
Comparing Civilizations: Egypt vs. Mesopotamia By: Josh Davis and Jake Li. Dec 28, · The purpose of this paper is to compare the developments and features of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia (Sumer), Egypt, India (Indus River Valley, Harappa), China (Shang dynasty), and Mesoamerica (Olmec), starting from the creation of villages to the formation of civilizations.
Politics; Psychology; Religion; Science; Social Issues; Sports; Technology; The Environment; If we were to fold a map of the ancient world in half, would we see symmetry between the two societies of Egypt and Mesoamerica?
To answer this question we must dive into the two similar, yet different, ancient complex societies. Egypt and Mesopotamia: Similarities and Differences in Religion.
Words Feb 2nd, I will compare and contrast the geography and its impact, the political structure of each society, the importance of their existing class structures and finally the role of women in these dynamic civilizations. Similarities and Differences in Religion.
The Mesoamerica communities were close to each other geographically, but they still had differences. Different geographical regions allowed people to plant different crops and domesticate different animals.
A similarity that all ancient agrarian societies had with each other was that they were all located near major water sources. Social similarities between Egypt and Mesopotamia included: rigid social structure, dependence on slavery, and authoritative religious structure.
However, the system of government was different because Egyptian society was governed by a theocratic monarchy, while Mesopotamia was ruled by a traditional monarchy.