For some time now, everybody you know has been talking about how you are going to learn to read and write, and how you'll be attending school soon.
Considered a form of bilingual education Considered a form of English-only education Program objective is full bilingualism and biliteracy based on an additive model of bilingualism.
Program objective is proficiency in English based on a subtractive model. L1 literacy is not developed. L1 and L2 are both majority languages, equally prestigious and recognized as valuable by the community.
L1 is a minority language.
L2 is the majority language. L1 may be denigrated and relegated to inferior status. The message is conveyed that only English is valid or important. Minimum of four to six years to acquire "receptive" skills of listening and reading Students expected to gain proficiency enough to enter mainstream classes in one year Curriculum Design Uses L2 as the medium of instruction.
Focuses on learning the target language through content teaching rather than on teaching the language. Uses L2 as the medium of instruction. However, for a one-year program, content objectives are not clearly defined. The curriculum is designed to have coherence, balance, breadth, relevance, progression and continuity.
Students at all points receive a curriculum parallel to non-immersion students. Initial focus is on understanding L2, and later on speaking L2 in a natural and gradual progression.
One-year of immersion is seen as "normal. Students transfer into mainstream classes that may or may not be connected in terms of curriculum content.
Students must be provided "appropriate services to overcome language barriers" until they attain academic achievement equivalent to average native English speakers. Initial literacy developed in the second language. L1 language arts instruction often delayed, but phased in over time until biliteracy is achieved.
L1 literacy not developed as a part of the program. Programs are promoted and supported by parents. Parents are generally middle-class or upper-class.
Sheltered immersion is the "default mode" for limited English proficient students. Under special circumstances, parents may opt out of the program; otherwise, it is mandatory.
Parents are generally lower class and non-English speaking. Students are all at the same academic level—usually progress as a cohort group beginning with no L2 proficiency.
Students grouped by English proficiency levels, but multi-grade level grouping permitted. Presumes a homogeneous language classroom—most students are native speakers of the same L1 Encourages heterogeneous classrooms—students are expected to speak a variety of native languages.
Teacher Qualifications Teachers are highly skilled bilinguals with a strong commitment to bilingualism and multiculturalism as educational aims. Teachers serve as linguistic role models. Teachers use L2 methodology systematically.81 Bilingual, ESL, and English Immersion: Educational Models for Limited English Proficient Students in Texas Kelly Faltis Education of limited English proficient (LEP) students is important for domestic economic growth, the cohesion of society within the United.
Dual-language education, formerly called bilingual education, refers to academic programs that are taught in two languages (*Since the term bilingual education has negative associations, it is now more commonly called dual-language education, among other terms).
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of transitional bilingual education (TBE) and structured English immersion (SEI) instructional models on the development of English language learners (ELLs). Instructional strategies and educational philosophies are always changing.
One constant, however, is the achievement gap between ELLs and mainstream students continue to widen. An experimental study comparing English-only and Transitional Bilingual Education on Spanish- speaking preschoolers' early literacy development.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25 (2), Two-Way Immersion/Dual Language – a native English-speaking group and a non-English group (e.g. Spanish speakers) are both taught academic content in both languages for an extended period of time.
Both groups develop academic proficiency in both languages. Two-Way Immersion Education What Is It? Two-way immersion is an educational model that integrates native English speakers and native speakers of another language for all or most of the day, with the goals of promoting high academic achievement, first- and second-language development, and cross-cultural understanding for all students.