Overview Union flag In the presidential electionRepublicansled by Abraham Lincolnsupported banning slavery in all the U. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery.
The Antebellum Period in American history is generally considered to be the period before the civil war and after the War ofalthough some historians expand it to all the years from the adoption of the Constitution in to the beginning of the Civil War.
It was characterized by the rise of abolition and the gradual polarization of the country between abolitionists and supporters of slavery. The annexation of new territory and western expansion saw the reinforcement of American individualism and of Manifest Destiny, the idea that Americans and the institutions of the U.
The Cotton Economy In The South In the South, cotton plantations were very profitable, at least until overplanting leached most of the nutrients from the soil.
Plantation owners were able to obtain large tracts of land for little money, particularly after the Indian Removal Act was passed in These plantations depended on a large force of slave labor to cultivate and harvest the crop—most white farmers in the 19th century wanted and were able to obtain their own farms as the U.
The demand for slave labor and the U.
As the quality of land decreased from over-cultivation, slave owners increasingly found that the majority of their wealth existed in the form of their slaves; they began looking to new lands in Texas and further west, as well as in the Caribbean and Central America, as places where they might expand their holdings and continue their way of life.
Early Industrialization and the Rise in Manufacturing in the North The early industrial revolution began with textile industry in New England, which was revolutionized by Samuel Slater. Inthe horse-powered Beverly Cotton Manufactory had begun operating in Beverly, Massachusetts; inSlater opened the first fully mechanized mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
His system of independent mills and mill towns spread through the Blackstone Valley into Massachusetts. The Waltham system also included specialized, trained employees to run the looms—mainly young women—giving rise to the concept of wage labor, which gradually began overtaking previous forms of labor, such as apprenticeship and indentured servitude, family labor, and slavery in industrialized areas.
A population shift from farms to cities had already begun, but the promise of better income in factory jobs accelerated that movement. Manufacturing advances were not limited to the textile industry alone. Similar advances occurred in other industries, including the manufacture of equipment, machinery, furniture, paints, paper, and glass.
Every part of American industry and production was affected. Penny Press and Affordable Newspapers Among the areas benefitting from advances in technology was the printing business, in particular, the printing of newspapers.
Most newspapers in the early 19th century cost six cents a copy and were affordable only to the upper classes, though a barter system often allowed readers to trade rags, whiskey or other goods for a subscription.
InAmerican Richard M. Hoe made a further improvement with the rotary printing press, which arranged the material to be printed on a cylinder rather than a flat plate, allowing a much larger volumes of material to be printed—millions of copies in a day rather than thousands—at a lower cost.
These advances led to a rise in the number of newspapers published, with more available at prices affordable to the working class—byabout 3, newspapers were published in the U. Papers were often read aloud in homes, bringing news of the government, politics, and local events.
Significant speeches were sometimes printed in their entirety, giving politicians and social activists a much wider audience. Stories from one newspaper might be reprinted in others, sometimes with local commentary or editorial rebuttals added. The advent of the telegraph meant news from distant places could be disseminated much more rapidly.
Newspapers also relied on news—factual or not—provided in the form of letters to the editor, which were usually unsigned or made use of a pseudonym such as Plato or A True American.
They sold for a penny each, making news and even literacy itself more accessible to the working class. Many stories in the penny papers were sensationalist and embellished to say the least. Modern tabloids can trace their origins to the penny press—but so can modern mainstream newspapers.The Civil War was America's bloodiest and most divisive conflict, pitting the Union Army against the Confederate States of America.
The war resulted in the deaths of more than , people, with. Pre-Civil War American Culture. At the end of the 18th century, the United States had few professional writers or artists and lacked a class of patrons to subsidize the arts. But during the decades before the Civil War, distinctively American art and literature emerged.
In the s, novels appeared by African-American and Native American writers. Jun 28, · In which John Green ACTUALLY teaches about the Civil War. In part one of our two part look at the US Civil War, John looks into the causes of the war, and the motivations of the individuals who.
This is a list of wars involving the United States of America. 18th-century wars. Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result for the United States and its Allies American Revolutionary War before and after U.S.
withdrawal; Civil war is ongoing; Bosnian War (–) Part of the Yugoslav Wars. Location. The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States (U.S.) from to The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history.. Largely as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April , when secessionist forces .
Life Before the Civil War Activity 1. In the decade-and-a-half prior to the Civil War, the United States saw dramatic changes in industrialization in the North, and a rapid increase in transportation (rail and steamship) all over the country.